The procedure for ratification of VA by the EU is set out in Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union. It is a two-step process. The European Parliament must approve the agreement. The Council of the EU must then definitively approve the agreement by a “qualified majority”. The Council of the EU is composed of ministerial representatives from each Member State. Any agreement on the future relationship between the EU and the UK must be fully concluded before that date, when it is due to enter into force on 1 January 2021. The Brexit Withdrawal Agreement, officially entitled “Withdrawal Agreement of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community”, was adopted on 24 The Treaty between the European Union (EU), Euratom and the United Kingdom (UK) , signed on 1 January 2020, sets out the conditions for the United Kingdom`s exit from the EU and Euratom. The text of the treaty was published on 17 October 2019 and is a renegotiated version of an agreement published six months earlier. The previous version of the Withdrawal Agreement was rejected three times by the House of Commons, leading Queen Elizabeth II to accept Theresa May`s resignation as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and appoint Boris Johnson as the new Prime Minister on 24 July 2019. With regard to the Irish border issue, there is a protocol on Northern Ireland (the “backstop”) which is annexed to the agreement and which establishes a position of return cases which will only enter into force if no other effective regulation is demonstrated before the end of the transitional period. .